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Immersion challenge with low and highly virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus reveals different pathogenesis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

A McBeath, M Aamelfot, D H Christiansen, I Matejusova, T Markussen, M Kaldhusdal, O B Dale, S C Weli and K Falk. Immersion challenge with low and highly virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus reveals different pathogenesis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 2015, 38, 3–15.

The salmonid orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) causes disease of varying severity in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Field observations suggest that host factors, the environment and differences between ISAV strains attribute to the large variation in disease progression. Variation in host mortality and dissemination of ISAV isolates with high and low virulence (based on a previously published injection challenge) were investigated using immersion challenge. Virus dissemination was determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in several organs, including blood. Surprisingly, the low virulent virus (LVI) replicated and produced nucleoprotein at earlier time points post-infection compared to the virus of high virulence (HVI). This was particularly noticeable in the gills as indicated by different viral load profiles. However, the HVI reached a higher maximum viral load in all tested organs and full blood. This was associated with a higher mortality of 100% as compared to 20% in the LVI group by day 23 post-infection. Immersion challenge represented a more natural infection method and suggested that specific entry routes into the fish may be of key importance between ISAV strains. The results suggest that a difference in virulence is important for variations in virus dissemination and pathogenesis (disease development).

 

DOI:10.1111/jfd.12253

NVI authors

Aamelfot Maria

Forsker / Researcher

Weli Simon

Forsker

Falk Knut

Forsker